Review Article

Antibacterial activities and biosynthesis of nanoparticles using hemp extracts

Karishma Singh, Roger M. Coopoosamy, Kubendran K. Naidoo, Jamila K. Adam
Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development | Vol 6, No 1 | a160 | DOI: | © 2022 Karishma Singh, Roger M. Coopoosamy, Kubendran K. Naidoo, Jamila K. Adam | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 23 February 2022 | Published: 27 October 2022

About the author(s)

Karishma Singh, Research Ethics, Durban University of Technology, Durban, South Africa
Roger M. Coopoosamy, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Mangosuthu University of Technology, South Africa
Kubendran K. Naidoo, Department of Nature Conservation, Faculty of Natural Science, Mangosuthu University of Technology, Durban, South Africa
Jamila K. Adam, Institutional Research Ethics, Durban University of Technology, South Africa


Background: The use of plants in the biosynthesis of nanoparticles is a fast-growing technique and has gained much interest from researchers over the years.

Aim: This study reported the utilisation of leaf extracts of Cannabis sativa L. (hemp) for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs).

Methods: In this study, techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) were carried out for the synthesis and characterisation of nanoparticles. The antibacterial efficacy of the synthesised nanoparticles was evaluated by using the agar diffusion and macrobroth dilution methods. The antibacterial properties of the biosynthesised AgNPs were evaluated against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

Results: The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by colour change in plant extracts and further characterised by Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry TEM, SEM, EDX and FT-IR analyses. Fourier transform infrared analysis revealed the efficient capping and stabilisation properties of these particles and the nature of the capping agent. Silver nanoparticles prepared from leaf extracts showed effective antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli.

Conclusion: Biosynthesised AgNPs showed a broad-spectrum antimicrobial susceptibility range and therefore represent promising antimicrobial agents. This is the first reported study for hemp leaf extracts and contributes to the environmentally friendly and cost-effective technique of biosynthesising nanoparticles for drug development.

Contribution: This study contributes to the current medicinal properties of cannabis. Furthermore, it reflects that cannabis can also be utilized at a nanoscale with effective antibacterial efficacy.


biosynthesis; silver nanoparticles; antimibacterial activity; hemp; Cannabinaceae.


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