Original Research

Proximate, phytochemical screening and mineral analysis of Crescentia cujete L. leaves

Musbau B. Olaniyi, Ibraheem O. Lawal, Aishat A. Olaniyi
Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development | Vol 2, No 1 | a28 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/jomped.v2i1.28 | © 2018 Musbau B. Olaniyi, Ibraheem O. Lawal, Aishat A. Olaniyi | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 12 June 2017 | Published: 26 January 2018

About the author(s)

Musbau B. Olaniyi, Biomedicinal Research Centre, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Nigeria
Ibraheem O. Lawal, Biomedicinal Research Centre, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Nigeria
Aishat A. Olaniyi, Department of Forest Resources Management, University of Ibadan, Nigeria


Background: One of the uses of Crescentia cujete leaves is in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, which necessitated the evaluation of its chemical composition.

Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the chemical composition of C. cujete leaves.

Setting: Fresh, mature leaves were harvested from the Herbal Garden, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Jericho Hill, Ibadan, Nigeria. The plant samples were identified at Forest Herbarium, Ibadan, Nigeria, sorted to eliminate extraneous matter and then air-dried on a cabinet dryer for five days at ambient temperature and oven-dried at 40°C for five minutes. The dried leaves were milled to powder using a medium-sized milling machine and stored in an air-tight container until needed for analysis.

Methods: The proximate composition, phytochemical screening and mineral analysis were determined using standard analytic methods. Minerals such as iron, zinc, calcium, manganese and magnesium were determined by the atomic absorption spectrophotometer; sodium and potassium by the flame photometer and phosphorus by the spectrophotometer.

Results: The proximate analysis results revealed that the samples contained carbohydrate (40.46%), crude protein (16.15%), crude fibre (19.71%), crude fat (2.91%), ash (9.77%) and moisture (11.03%), while the phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of cardiac glycosides, saponins, tannins, anthraquinones and flavonoids. The mineral compositions (mg/g) decreased in the order Ca (6.0) > K (5.0) > Mg (2.2) > P (1.5) > Na (0.2) > Fe = Zn (0.6) > Cu = Mn (0.03).

Conclusion: These results conceivably indicate that C. cujete is a good source of essential minerals and phyto-nutrients which possess strong pharmacological activities, providing scientific credence for its therapeutic usage in folklore medicine.


Crescentia cujete; leaves phytochemicals; composition; medicinal plants


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Crossref Citations

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