Original Research

Antioxidant activity and antimicrobial properties of Entada leptostachya and Prosopis juliflora extracts

Mercy C. Ruto, Christine M. Ngugi, Patrick G. Kareru, Kipyegon Cheruiyot, Sylvester O. Rechab, Edwin S. Madivoli, Jackson K. Mutembei, Pius K. Kairigo, Ernest G. Maina
Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development | Vol 2, No 1 | a31 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/jomped.v2i1.31 | © 2018 Mercy C. Ruto, Christine M. Ngugi, Patrick G. Kareru, Kipyegon Cheruiyot, Sylvester O. Rechab, Edwin S. Madivoli, Jackson K. Mutembei, Pius K. Kairigo, Ernest G. Maina | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 11 August 2017 | Published: 27 February 2018

About the author(s)

Mercy C. Ruto, Department of Chemistry, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya
Christine M. Ngugi, Department of Chemistry, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya
Patrick G. Kareru, Department of Chemistry, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya
Kipyegon Cheruiyot, Department of Chemistry, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya
Sylvester O. Rechab, Department of Chemistry, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Kenya and Department of Physical Sciences, Kabianga University, Kenya
Edwin S. Madivoli, Department of Chemistry, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya
Jackson K. Mutembei, Department of Chemistry, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya
Pius K. Kairigo, Department of Chemistry, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya
Ernest G. Maina, Department of Chemistry, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya


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Abstract

Background: Natural phytoconstituents produced by plants for their sustenance have been reported to reduce disease.

Objectives: This study determined the phytoconstituents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of crude methanolic extracts of Entada leptostachya and Prosopis juliflora extracts.

Methodology: Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and β-carotene assays; the total phenolic and flavonoid were estimated using Folin–Ciocalteau and aluminium chloride, whereas antimicrobial activity was determined using the zone of inhibition method.

Results: Screening of the extracts revealed the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids, saponins and phenols. Fourier transform infrared spectra of the extracts revealed presence of hydrogen bonded –OH functional group. E. leptostachya barks had the highest antioxidant activity followed by P. juliflora roots, E. leptostachya roots and P. juliflora leaves [μg/mL]. Prosopis juliflora (roots) had the highest bleaching effect, whereas E. leptostachya (barks) had the lowest bleaching effect. The total flavonoids were determined to be 0.15 ± 0.02 mg/g, 1.18 ± 0.18 mg/g, 0.39 ± 0.05 mg/g and 0.64 ± 0.03 mg/g for E. leptostachya roots, E. leptostachya barks, P. juliflora leaves and P. juliflora roots extracts, respectively. The total phenols were determined to be 0.93 ± 0.18 mg/g, 2.69 ± 0.41 mg/g, 0.62 ± 0.08 mg/g and 0.62 ± 0.08 mg/g for E. leptostachya roots, E. leptostachya barks, P. juliflora roots and P. juliflora leaves extracts. All plant extracts exhibited moderate activity against the growth of selected microorganisms.

Conclusion: Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the two plants was as a result of secondary metabolites found in the crude extracts.


Keywords

Antioxidant activity; Total phenolic content; Flavonoid content; DPPH scavenging; β-carotene

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