Original Research

Antimicrobial activity of stigmasterol from the stem bark of Neocarya macrophylla

Amina J. Yusuf, Musa I. Abdullahi, Godwin A. Aleku, Ilyasu A.A. Ibrahim, Celestina O. Alebiosu, Maryam Yahaya, Hajara W. Adamu, Abdulrazaq Sanusi, Maria M. Mailafiya, Hassan Abubakar
Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development | Vol 2, No 1 | a38 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/jomped.v2i1.38 | © 2018 Amina J. Yusuf, M. I. Abdullahi, G. A. Aleku, I. A.A. Ibrahim, C. O. Alebiosu, M. Yahaya, H. W. Adamu, A. Sanusi, M. M. Mailafiya, H. Abubakar | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 04 October 2017 | Published: 19 March 2018

About the author(s)

Amina J. Yusuf, Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo, Nigeria
Musa I. Abdullahi, Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo, Nigeria
Godwin A. Aleku, School of Chemistry, Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, University of Manchester, United Kingdom
Ilyasu A.A. Ibrahim, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic, Nigeria
Celestina O. Alebiosu, Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo, Nigeria
Maryam Yahaya, Raw Materials Research and Development Council, Nigeria
Hajara W. Adamu, Department of Biology,Shehu Shagari College of Education, Nigeria
Abdulrazaq Sanusi, Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria
Maria M. Mailafiya, Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Gombe State University, Nigeria
Hassan Abubakar, Department of Chemistry, Sokoto State University, Nigeria


Background: Natural products play a significant role in human therapy. They represent a huge reservoir of bioactive chemical diversity and help in understanding the cellular pathways that are essential component of drug discovery process.


Objective: This study was aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial activity of stigmasterol isolated from the stem bark of Neocarya macrophylla.


Methods: Stigmasterol previously isolated from the stem bark of N. macrophylla was subjected to antimicrobial screening against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), S. aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans and Candida krusei using agar diffusion and broth dilution methods.


Results: Susceptibility test results showed that the compound (100 μg/mL) inhibited the growth of all the test organisms with mean zone of inhibition range from 23 mm to 30 mm except the VRE, S. typhi and K. pneumoniae. The activity of stigmasterol was compared with that of ciprofloxacin (5 μg/mL), the standard antibacterial drug, and fluconazole (5 μg/mL), the antifungal agent. The test compound displayed a broad-spectrum of activity, and in many cases exhibited comparable antibacterial activity when compared to ciprofloxacin. Interestingly, the compound also showed antifungal activity against Candida spp., affording comparable inhibitory effect as fluconazole. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC) of stigmasterol range from 6.25 μg/mL to 25 μg/mL and from 12.5 μg/mL to 50 μg/mL, respectively.


Conclusion: These properties suggest that the isolated stigmasterol is a potent and broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal agent and as such may serve as a lead compound in the development of novel antimicrobial drugs.


Neocarya macrophylla; stigmasterol; antimicrobial


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