Original Research

In vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Prunus africana (Hook. f.) Kalkman (bark extracts) and Harrisonia abyssinica Oliv. extracts (bark extracts): A comparative study

Edwin S. Madivoli, Ernest G. Maina, Pius K. Kairigo, Martin K. Murigi, Joel K. Ogilo, Jared O. Nyangau, Paul K. Kimani, Cheruiyot Kipyegon
Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development | Vol 2, No 1 | a39 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/jomped.v2i1.39 | © 2018 Edwin S. Madivoli, Ernest M. Gachui, Cheruiyot Kipyegon, Pius K. Kairigo, Martin K. Murigi, Joel K. Ogilo, Jared O. Nyangau, Paul K. Kimani | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 24 October 2017 | Published: 27 June 2018

About the author(s)

Edwin S. Madivoli, Department of Chemistry, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya
Ernest G. Maina, Department of Chemistry, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya
Pius K. Kairigo, Department of Chemistry, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya
Martin K. Murigi, Department of Chemistry, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya
Joel K. Ogilo, Department of Chemistry, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya
Jared O. Nyangau, Department of Chemistry, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya
Paul K. Kimani, Department of Chemistry, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya
Cheruiyot Kipyegon, Department of Botany, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya


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Abstract

Background: Plants are new sources of antibacterial agents, hence the need to determine and evaluate the antibacterial properties, antioxidant activity and gas chromatography – mass spectrometer (GC-MS) profile of medicinal plants.

 

Methodology: In this study, sequential extraction of Prunus africana and Harrisonia abyssinica was used to obtain ethyl acetate and methanol extracts. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), whereas the total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were estimated using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride, respectively. Antibacterial properties of the extracts against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coliand Candida albicans were estimated using the disc diffusion method and compared against streptomycin.

 

Results: Screening of crude methanolic extracts revealed the presence of secondary metabolites which was further confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) characterisation that revealed the presence of H-bonded OH functional groups. The extracts revealed that P. africana had a higher total phenolic and total flavonoid contents compared to H. abyssinica. Methanolic extracts of both plants had moderate activity against selected microorganisms and both inhibited DPPH radical scavenging activity. GC-MS analysis of P. africana and H. abyssinica extracts revealed the presence of several phytochemicals that have been reported to have medicinal uses. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed positive correlations with the DPPH radical scavenging activity and negative correlations with EC50.

 

Conclusion: Prunus africana and H. abyssinica extracts had moderate antimicrobial properties against the selected microorganisms because of the presence of secondary metabolites.


Keywords

FTIR; Total phenolic; total flavonoid; antioxidant; antibacterial

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