Original Research

Effect of lupeol from Vernonia glaberrima (Asteraceae) on pain and inflammation

Amina J. Yusuf, Musa I. Abdullahi, Aisha M. Umar, Fatima Musa
Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development | Vol 4, No 1 | a84 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/jomped.v4i1.84 | © 2020 Amina J. Yusuf, Musa I. Abdullahi, Aisha M. Umar, Fatima Musa | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 15 May 2020 | Published: 15 September 2020

About the author(s)

Amina J. Yusuf, Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria
Musa I. Abdullahi, Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria
Aisha M. Umar, Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria
Fatima Musa, Department of Biochemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria


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Abstract

Background: Steroids have been reported to possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, and Vernonia glaberrima also possesses analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties.

Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of lupeol isolated from the n-hexane soluble fraction of the methanol leaf extract of V. glaberrima on pain and inflammation.

Method: Lupeol was re-isolated from the leaf of V. glaberrima by using chromatographic procedures; it was subjected to analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies by using acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice and formalin-induced pain and inflammation in rats, respectively. The intraperitoneal lethal dose (LD50) of lupeol was determined by using Lorke’s method.

Results: The results of the study showed that lupeol significantly (p < 0.05) decreased writhing response at doses 12.5 mg/kg, 25.0 mg/kg and 50.0 mg/kg corresponding to percentage inhibition of 83.60%, 83.63% and 80.02%, respectively. This was higher than piroxicam, the standard drug (73.8%), at 10 mg/kg. The compound was also able to significantly (p < 0.05) reduce nociceptive response in both phases of the formalin test, and there was a remarkable reduction of oedema by the compound at the second, third and fourth hours. The median LD50 of the compound was estimated to be greater than 5000 mg/kg.

Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that lupeol from the leaf of V. glaberrima has good analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity that validates the ethnomedicinal use of the plant in the treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions.


Keywords

Vernonia glaberrima; lupeol; analgesic; anti-inflammatory; Lorke’s method.

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