Original Research

Antidiarrhoeal activity of fractions of aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. leaves in castor oil-induced diarrhoeal female Wistar rats

Saoban S. Salimon, Musa T. Yakubu
Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development | Vol 4, No 1 | a88 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/jomped.v4i1.88 | © 2020 Saoban S. Salimon, Musa T. Yakubu | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 16 May 2020 | Published: 14 September 2020

About the author(s)

Saoban S. Salimon, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
Musa T. Yakubu, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria


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Abstract

Background: The aqueous extract of Mangifera indica leaves (AEMIL) has been substantiated for its antidiarrhoeal activity without information on the antidiarrhoeal-rich solvent fraction.

Aim: This study evaluated the antidiarrhoeal activity of solvent–solvent fractions from M. indica leaves in female Wistar rats.

Setting: This is laboratory animal-based phytopharmacological investigation conducted at the University of Ilorin.

Methods: Aqueous extract of M. indica leaves was successfully fractionated to give ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), n-butanol fraction (NBF) and aqueous residual fraction (ARF). The fractions at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight (bw) were screened for antidiarrhoeal activity. The antidiarrhoeal index (ADI) was also computed.

Results: Ethyl acetate fraction, NBF and ARF significantly (p < 0.05) extended the onset of diarrhoea, reduced fecal parameters (number, weight and water content of feaces and number of diarrhoeal feaces), masses and volumes of intestinal fluid, distance covered by charcoal meal, peristaltic index and its inhibition, with ARF exhibiting the most pronounced effects. The ADI at 25 and 100 mg/kg bw (equivalent doses of 14.09 and 56.3 mg/kg bw, respectively) of ARF which were 55.19 and 49.87, respectively were similar to 48.50 produced by loperamide/atropine sulphate. The ADI of 32.36 and 10.18 for 100 mg/kg bw each (equivalent of 26.41 and 17.24 mg/kg bw) of EAF and NBF respectively, were lower than that of loperamide/atropine sulphate (48.50).

Conclusion: Of all the fractions, the 25 mg/kg bw of ARF produced the most profound antidiarrhoeal activity via anti-motility and anti-secretory mechanisms.


Keywords

Anacardiaceae; antidiarrhoeal; anti-motility; anti-secretory; Mangifera indica

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