Original Research

Cytotoxicity, antifungal and antioxidant properties of Lonchocarpus capassa leaf extracts

Tambudzani C. Machaba, Salome Mahlo, Jacobus Eloff, Winston Nxumalo, Lyndy McGaw
Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development | Vol 8, No 1 | a221 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/jomped.v8i1.221 | © 2024 Tambudzani C. Machaba, Salome Mahlo, Jacobus Eloff, Winston Nxumalo, Lyndy McGaw | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 11 July 2023 | Published: 22 February 2024

About the author(s)

Tambudzani C. Machaba, Department of Biodiversity, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Limpopo, Polokwane Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
Salome Mahlo, Department of Biodiversity, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Limpopo, Polokwane, South Africa
Jacobus Eloff, Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
Winston Nxumalo, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Limpopo, Polokwane, South Africa
Lyndy McGaw, Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa

Abstract

Background: Lonchocarpus capassa is a medicinal plant used to treat diseases such as fungal infections, diarrhoea, oral candidiasis, and stomach complaints in South Africa.

Aim: The study aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity and antifungal compounds isolated from L. capassa leaf extracts.

Setting: The study was conducted in Muduluni village, Makhado Local Municipality, Limpopo province.

Methods: Leaf extracts were screened for antifungal activity against fungal pathogens: Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Bioassay-guided fractionation using column chromatography of the acetone extract led to the isolation of six antifungal compounds. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry were used for the identification of compounds. The antioxidant activity of the plant extracts was investigated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Cytotoxicity of isolated compounds was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay against Vero monkey kidney cells.

Results: The plant extract had an excellent minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) value of 40 μg/mL against the microorganisms. Compound 1 was identified as Lupeol, Compound 3 as Friedelin, and Compound 4 as 6-(γ,γ-Dimethylallyl)-3’,4’-dimethoxy-6”,6”-dimethylpyrano-[2”,3”:7,8]-flavanone (Compound 4). Compounds 2 and 5 were not identified because of the presence of mixtures of long-chain fatty acids. Friedelin was the most active radical scavenger in the DPPH assay. The compounds were not toxic with an LC50 value of ˃ 0.2 mg/mL.

Conclusion: Screening of medicinal plants could provide lead to the discovery of novel antifungal agents.

Contribution: The results support the traditional use of L. capassa to combat fungal infections in humans.


Keywords

Lonchocarpus capassa; antifungal activity; cytotoxicity; minimum inhibitory concentration; fungal infections

JEL Codes

I23: Higher Education • Research Institutions

Sustainable Development Goal

Goal 3: Good health and well-being

Metrics

Total abstract views: 307
Total article views: 289


Crossref Citations

No related citations found.